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高考英语语法:句子种类

句子种类 一、句子按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。1. 掌握陈述句的肯定式和否定式的构成及用法。e.g. We live in Tianjin. (肯定句)我们住在天津。We...

句子种类

一、句子按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

1. 掌握陈述句的肯定式和否定式的构成及用法。

e.g. We live in Tianjin. (肯定句)我们住在天津。

We don't live in Shanghai. (否定句)我们不住在上海。

注意:(1)在一般现在时的肯定式中,主语是第三人称单数时,动词要改成第三人称单数形式。

e.g. John studies Chinese very well.

(2)一般现在时和一般过去时的否定式要加助动词do (does), did.

e.g. I don't like swimming. 我不喜欢游泳。

He doesn't have lunch at home every day. 他每天不在家吃午饭。

They didn't play football yesterday. 他们昨天没有踢足球。

2. 掌握一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句的构成、用法和答语。注意在一般现在时和一般过去时的疑问句要加助动词do(does), did.

e.g. Do you often speak English at school? 在学校你常讲英语吗?

Does she have a brother ? = Has she got a brother? 她有兄弟吗?

Did it take you two hours to do your homework last night? 昨天晚上做作业花了你2个小时吗?

What do you often do on Sundays? 星期日你常常干什么?

When does your father get up every morning? 你父亲每天早晨几点钟起床?

Why didn't your teacher come to school yesterday? 昨天你们的老师为什么没来学校呢?

提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择一种,这种疑问句叫选择疑问句。结构是:"一般疑问句+or+一般疑问句",但常把后一部分里面和前一部分相同的成分省略。说明or前面部分用升调,后面部分用降调。

e.g. Is her brother an artist or a doctor? 她的兄弟是一个艺术家还是个医生?

Would you like tea or coffee? 你愿意喝茶还是喝咖啡?

Shall we go to the cinema on Saturday or on Sunday? 我们是周六还是周日去电影院?

反意疑问句表示提问者有一定的主见,但没把握,希望对方来证实。

注意反意疑问句的结构是:肯定的陈述句+否定的疑问句(缩略形式)

或:否定的陈述句+肯定的疑问句(缩略形式)

两部分的人称和时态要一致。

特别要注意否定的疑问句中的助动词必须缩写,主语(最后一个词)必须是代词而不能是名词。

e.g. Your sister has ever been to Shanghai, hasn't she?

你姐姐曾经去过上海是吗?

The boys didn't find anything, did they?

男孩子们什么也没找到/发现,是不是?

在回答反意疑问句时,要根据事实而定,事实是肯定的要回答Yes, …,事实是否定的要回答No, ….

e.g. He isn't going to the meeting, is he? 他不去参加会,是吗?

Yes, he is. 不,他要去。

No, he isn't. 是的/对,他不去。

It didn't snow last week, did it? 上周没有下雪,对吗?

Yes, it did. / No, it didn't. 不,下雪了。是的,没下雪。

3. 掌握祈使句的肯定式和否定式。祈使句没有主语。指让对方做某事,动词要用原形。表示请求,命令、建议等。

e.g. Go back to your seat, please. 请回到你的座位上去。

Don't make so much noise. 不要吵吵闹闹。

Let's go to school together! 咱们一起上学去吧!

(let's是含有第一人称主语的祈使句)

Let him help the child. 让他帮助那个孩子。(let him是含有第三人称主语的祈使句)

注意:否定形式是Let's (us , me)+not +动词原形

e.g. Let's not say anything about it.

对于这件事,咱们什么也不要说了。

4. 表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情时用感叹句,理解由What和How引导的感叹句的语序和感叹句的使用方法。How和What与所修饰的词放在句首,其它部分用陈述句语序。在口语中谓语常省略。

(1)how作状语,修饰形容词,副词或动词

结构:How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语

How nice the flowers are ! 花多漂亮啊!

How hard he works ! 他工作的多努力啊!

(2)what作宾语,修饰名词(名词前可有其他定语),单词可数名词前要加不定冠词a(an).

结构:What a (an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语

e.g. What a clever girl (she is )! 她是一个多么聪明的女孩啊!

What delicious food ! 多么好吃的食物啊!

二、句子按其结构可以分为简单句、并列句和复合句。

1. 简单句:The Simple Sentence由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子。

e.g. I get up at six thirty in the morning.

My mother and I often go shopping.

2. 并列句:The Compound Sentence 由并列词and, so, but, or等)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起而构成的句子。要掌握并列句的构成及用法。

e.g. I help him and he helps me. 我帮他,他帮我。

This is our first lesson, so I don't know all your names.

这是我们的第一节课,所以我不认识你们。

She likes bread and milk , but she doesn't like eggs at all.

她喜欢吃面包和牛奶,但她一点儿也不喜欢吃鸡蛋。

3. 复合句:The Complex Sentence 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子。

e.g. If you are ill, you must see the doctor.

如果你病了,一定要去看医生。(状语从句)

I hope he's better tomorrow.

我希望他明天身体更好一些。(宾语从句)

熟练掌握宾语从句的语序及关联词that, if / whether, what, who, which, whose, when, what time, where, how 等的用法,以及宾语从句的时态。

在复合句中作主句的宾语,叫宾语从句。

注意:宾语从句的语序必须是陈述句语序。

e.g. I asked him if he was a student.

宾语从句的时态呼应是:主句的时态是一般现在时,从句可以是任何一个时态。

如果主句的时态是一般过去时,从句必须是过去时态的一种形式。

当表示事实、真理、自然现象时必须用一般现在时。

e.g. The teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun.

老师告诉我们地球围绕太阳转。

请注意防止出现以下错误:

A. They said that they'll leave if Peter stays.

时态错误,应改为:They said that they would leave if Peter stayed.

B. He asked why were you late for school.

语序错误,应改为:He asked why you were late for school .

C. Her brother asked me whose book this was?

标点错误,问号应该改为句号。

熟练掌握由when, before, after, as soon as, until, because, than, if, so …that等词引导的时间、原因,比较,条件、结果状语从句。

在复合句中修饰主句中的动词,形容词或副词等的从句叫作状语从句。

时间状语从句:

When she reached home , she had a short rest.

当她到家时,她休息了一会儿。

Judy had finished writing the book before she went to Queensland. 朱娣在去昆士兰之前已经写完了那本书。

I went to bed after I finished my article. 我写完文章之后才上床。

As soon as the bell rang the students, stopped talking to each other. 铃声一响,学生们就停止了谈话。

We won't leave until the head teacher comes back. 班主任回来我们才会离开。

原因状语从句:

The children went to the farm, because the farmers needed some help. 孩子们去农场是因为农民们需要帮忙。

比较状语从句:Jim is older than Lucy is. 吉姆比露西大。

条件状语从句:

If it rains tomorrow , we won't hold a sports meeting on the sports ground. 如果明天下雨,我们就不在运动场上开运动会了。

结果状语从句:

The box is so heavy that I can't lift it. 这个箱子太沉以致于我无法抬起来。

目的状语从句:

The headmaster spoke loudly so that all the students could hear what he said. 校长高声讲话为的是全体学生能够听到他所讲的话。

让步状语从句:

Although he is young , he knows a lot of things. 虽然他年龄小,但却认识许多事情。

状语从句的时态要与主句时态相互呼应。但要注意以as soon as, when, until等引导的时间状语从句表示将来的动作时,从句要用一般现在时表示将来。

e.g. He will write to me as soon as he gets to America. 他一到美国就给我写信。

When I see him , I will tell him this good news. 当我见到他时,我将告诉他这个好消息。

We won't leave until we finish our homework. 直到完成作业我们才会离开。

以if引导的条件状语从句假设的是将来的动作,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时。

e.g. He will come to see me if he has time. 如果条件状语从句放在宾语从句中,时态则依照宾语从句的要求而变。

e.g. My mother said she would buy me a book if I studied hard. 我母亲说如果我努力学习,她要给我买一本书。

以because引导的原因状语从句不可能和so一起连用。

e.g. He didn't come to school yesterday because he was ill. 他昨天没来学校,因为他生病了。

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