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高中英语语法:强调句

强调句是一种修辞,是人们为了表达自己的意愿或情感而使用的一种形式。通过各种方式对句子中的某个部分进行强调,从而起到修辞的作用。英语常用的强调结构是"It is(was)+被强...

强调句是一种修辞,是人们为了表达自己的意愿或情感而使用的一种形式。通过各种方式对句子中的某个部分进行强调,从而起到修辞的作用。英语常用的强调结构是"It is(was)+被强调部分(主语、宾语或状语)+who(that)..."。一般说来,被强调部分指人时,用who; 指事物时用that,但that也可以指人。在美国英语中指事物时常用which来代替that。

一、常用强调句型

1、陈述句的强调句型:It is/was + 被强调部分(通常是主语、宾语或状语)+ that/who(当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其它部分。

e.g. It was yesterday that he met Li Ping.

2、一般疑问句的强调句型:同上,只是把is/was提到it前面。

e.g. Was it yesterday that he met Li Ping?

3、特殊疑问句的强调句型:被强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/who + 其它部分?

e.g. When and where was it that you were born?

强调句例句:针对I met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.句子进行强调。

强调主语:It was I that (who) met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.

强调宾语:It was Li Ming that I met at the railway station yesterday.

强调地点状语:It was at the railway station that I met Li Ming yesterday.

强调时间状语:It was yesterday that I met Li Ming at the railway station.

注意:构成强调句的it本身没有词义;强调句中的连接词一般只用that, who,即使在强调时间状语和地点状语时也如此,that, who不可省略;强调句中的时态只用两种,一般现在时和一般过去时。原句谓语动词是一般过去时、过去完成时和过去进行时,用It was … ,其余的时态用It is … 。

4. not … until … 的强调句型

1)句型为:It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分

e.g. 普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.

2)注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/was not … 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

5. 谓语动词的强调

It is/was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do/does或did。

e.g. Do sit down. 务必请坐。

  He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。

  Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!

注意:此种强调只用do/does或did,没有别的形式;过去时用did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

二、常用强调形式

1. 用do/does/did + V可表强调

Some people do believe that nuclear power poses a threat to the world peace.

2. adv或adj可表强调:never/only/very

This is the very question that deserves careful analysis.

3. 双重否定可表强调

Taking part-time jobs is never without drawbacks.

4. what引导的主从可表强调

What really matters is cooperation.

5. 倒装可表强调(凡是倒装都可以表示强调)

Little do people take into account the seriousness of this problem.

6. 比较状语从句可表强调

Nothing is more imperative than to learn from the past.

7. 强调句型可表强调

It is/was +被强调部份+ that/who +原句剩余部份

It is stability that destroys people’s ambition and barricades people’s steps.

三、强调句的语法结构

1.用助动词“do(does/did)+动词原形”来表示强调:

Do write to me when you get there.你到那儿后务必给我来信。

2.用形容词very,only,single,such等修饰名词或形容词来加强语气:

How dare you buy such expensive jewels?你怎么敢买这么贵的宝石呢?

3.用ever,never,very,just等副词和badly,highly,really等带有-l y的副词来进行强调:

I really don’t know what to do next.我的确不知道下一步该怎么做。

4.用in the world,on earth,at all等介词短语可以表达更强的语气(常用于疑问句):

Where in the world could he be?他到底会在哪儿?

5.用感叹句来表示强烈的感情,突出说话人的情感:

How interesting a story it is!这是一个多么有趣的故事啊!

6.用重复来表示强调:

Why!why!The cage is empty!啊!啊!箱子是空的。

7.用倒装句(也就是将要强调的句子或被强调的部分置于句首)来加强语气:

On the table were some flowers.桌上摆着一些花。(强调地点)

8.用强调句型:“It is(was)+被强调的部分+that(who)+原句其它部分”来强调说话人的意愿:

It was on Monday night that all this happened.所有这一切发生在周一晚上。

9.用If来表示强调:

1)If从句+I don’t know who/what,etc.does/is/has,etc.

主语部分也可以用nobody does/is/has,etc.或everybody does/is/has,et c.来代替(这里的if从句往往是正话反说,反话正说):

If he can’t do it,I don’t know who can.要是他做不了这件事,我不知道还有谁能做。(强调只有他能做) If Jim is a coward,everybody is.要是吉姆是个胆小鬼,那么人人都是胆小鬼。(强调吉姆不是胆小鬼)

2)if从句+it be主句(此用法可看成是第8中强调句型的变形,即把所要强调的内容放在it be的后面,把其它内容放在由if引导的从句中):

If anyone knew the truth,it was Tom.如果说谁了解事实的真相,那便是汤姆。

10.用破折号、黑体字也可以表示强调,加强语气:

It’s because of hard work—ten years of hard work.那是因为艰苦的工作--十年艰苦的工作!

He began the work in late May.他在五月底开始的这项工作。(强调时间)

注意事项:

that后的强调句如果是原因状语从句,从句只能用because引导,不能用since,as或why。

It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river.

强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/who + 其它部分?

e.g. When and where was it that you were born?

强调句例句:I met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.句子进行强调。

强调主语:It was I that (who) met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.

强调宾语:It was Li Ming that I met at the railway station yesterday.

强调地点状语:It was at the railway station that I met Li Ming yesterday.

强调时间状语:It was yesterday that I met Li Ming at the railway station.

注意:构成强调句的it本身没有词义;强调句中的连接词一般只用that, who,即使在强调时间状语和地点状语时也如此,that, who不可省略;强调句中的时态只用两种,一般现在时和一般过去时。原句谓语动词是一般过去时、过去完成时和过去进行时,用It was … ,其余的时态用It is … 。

11. not … until … 的强调句型

1)句型为:It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分

e.g. 普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.

2)注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/was not … 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

12. 谓语动词的强调

It is/was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do/does或did。

e.g. Do sit down. 务必请坐。

He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。

Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!

注意:此种强调只用do/does或did,没有别的形式;过去时用did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

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