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高考英语语法:动名词

动名词一、动名词的性质 1. 动名词的动词性质表现在:可有宾语和状语从而组成动名词短语。Father hoped that his son didn't mind his saying it.父亲希望儿子别...

动名词

一、动名词的性质

1. 动名词的动词性质表现在:可有宾语和状语从而组成动名词短语。

Father hoped that his son didn't mind his saying it.父亲希望儿子别介意他说的话。

Are you for or against staying here?你赞成还是反对留在这里?

2. 动名词的名词性质表现在:在句中可用作主语、宾语等。

Smoking is not allowed in the office.办公室不许抽烟。

I have finished reading the book.我已经看完了这本书。

二、动名词的复合结构

1. 在口语中也有用名词通格或代词宾格的情况, 这种情况的复合结构在句中多用作宾语。

All of us hate people being unhappy.我们每个人都不愿人们不快乐。

I have often heard of him working hard.我常听到他刻苦用功的话。

2. 名词属格或物主代词后加动名词,即构成动名词复合结构, 名词属格或物主代词是动名词的逻辑主语。这种复合结构在句中多用作主语或宾语。

Lisa's laughing at my accent is getting on my nerves.莉莎嘲笑我的口音使我感到紧张。

Excuse my interrupting your lecture.请原谅我打断你的演讲。

三、动名词的时态与语态

1. 动名词一般时所表示的动作可与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生。

A gregarious person,he loves just playing fun with friends.他是一个爱交际的人,爱与朋友开玩笑。

A big job should be done in popularizing education.普及教育应该花大力气。

2. 动名词一般时所表示的动作也可能与谓语动词所表示的动作不同时发生。

All of us shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time.我们永远不会忘记第一次看见长城的情景。

Martin insisted on going to work in spite of his illness.马丁坚持要抱病工作。

3. 动名词完成时所表示的动作皆发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

Having been out of work,he had to borrow money from his friends for living.失业后,他不得不从朋友那里借钱生活。

We all got angry for having been cheated by the company.被那家公司欺骗了,我们都很气愤。

4. 动名词一般时和完成时都可用于被动式。

Jack objects to being kept waiting.杰克反对让他等着。

I can't forgive myself for having been attacked by surprise.遭到突然袭击,我不能原谅自己。

5. 有些动名词在句中虽为主动形式,却含有被动意义。

The bike needs repairing.自行车需要修理。

If a thing is worth doing,it is worth doing well.一件事如果值得做,就应把它做好。

三、动名词与不定式的比较

1. 一般说来,动名词着重进程;不定式着重结果。

I prefer to stay indoors on cold winter evenings.在冬天寒冷的夜晚,我宁愿呆在家里。

Your work needs correcting.你写的东西需要修改。

2. 动名词表示一般或抽象的多次性行为;而不定式则往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。

To play with fire will be dangerous.玩火会发生危险。

Walking for an hour at a street is more exhausting than you seem to think.在街上行走一小时似乎会比你想象的要累。

3. 有的动词其后接的动名词表示已完成的动作;不定式则表示未完成的动作。

I remember closing the window.我记得把窗户关上了。

Remember to close the window.记着要关窗户。

I forgot locking the door.我忘记了曾锁过门。

Don't forget to turn off the light when you leave the room.你离开房间时别忘了关灯。

4. 动名词的逻辑主语可能泛指“人们”;而不定式的逻辑主语则常常是句子中的名词或代词。

I hate working on Sundays.我讨厌星期日上班。/I hate to smoke.我讨厌抽烟。

5. 有些动词在书面语中多接动名词,在口语中多接不定式。

It started raining/to rain.天开始下雨了。

I fear offending/to offend her.我害怕冒犯她。

6. 有些动词后接不定式与动名词时句法功能不同。

He stopped drinking last week.他上星期戒酒了。

He stopped to drink.他停下来去喝酒。

7. 有些动词后接动名词主动式可表示被动意义;而不定式则须用其被动式表示被动意义。

The window needs repairing.窗户需要修理。

I won't bear to be thought about.我不堪被人想念。

四、动名词在句中的作用

1. 用作补语。

This is called turning things upside down.这叫做把事物颠倒了。

I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul.我管这叫做挖东墙补西墙。

2. 用作定语。

I will buy a pair of running shoes.我要买一双跑鞋。

This is a sleeping train.这是一列卧铺列车。

3. 用作动词宾语,可用于复合宾语结构。

Doctor suggests checking it in a different way.医生建议换一种方法检验它。

Do you find living here interesting?你觉得住在这里有意思吗?

4. 用作介词的宾语,介词有时可以省去。

Tom is fond of learning Chinese.汤姆喜欢学汉语。

He meant to go hunting.他要去打猎。

5. 用作主语或在形式主语结构中用作真正主语。

Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

Is it worthwhile seeing that film?看那部影片值得吗?

6. 用作表语。

Her job is teaching English.她的工作是教英语。

This is not playing the game.这样做就不公正诚实了。

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