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被动语态 一、被动语态含义与构成(一)被动语态的含义语态是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动...








1. 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词

Such things are only eaten by animals.这些东西只有动物才吃。

I am not so easily deceived.我不会轻易上当受骗的。

I am not easily annoyed at trifles.我不轻易为一些小事生气。

The destroyer is reported to have been sunk.据报道,这艘驱逐舰被击沉了。

He is abstracted by a bird outside the classroom.他的注意力溜到教室外的小鸟身上。

The Governor-General of Canada is appointed by Queen Elizabeth.加拿大总督是由伊丽莎白女王任命的。

2. 一般过去时:was/were+过去分词

Printing was introduced into Europe from China.印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。

I was answered nothing.我没有得到任何答复。

The singer was loudly applauded by the audience.这位歌唱家博得观众的响亮掌声。

The injured were allowed home after treatment.受伤者在治疗后获准回家。

The drought areas were not abandoned.干旱地区没有被人置之不理。

3. 一般将来时:shall/will be+过去分词

The decision of the Supreme Court shall not be appealed against.最高法院的这一判决为终审判决。

This matter will be looked into in the future.这件事将来是要查明的。

We hope that an agreement will be arrived at.我们希望达成一项协议。

4. 一般过去将来时:should/would be+过去分词

He said that the bridge would be built next year.他说这座桥明年将建成。

He consented that his house should be searched.他同意搜查他的房子。

Another half-hour and all doors would be locked—all lights extinguished.再过半小时,所有的门都要上锁——所有的灯都将熄灭。

He said that another test would be needed, adding that preparations must be made just now.他说需要再做一次试验,接着又说必须立即作好准备。

5. 现在完成时:has/have been+过去分词

The cholera outbreak has been contained.霍乱的发生已被控制住了。

He has been appointed to teach at the new school.他已经被委派到那所新学校去教书。

The data have been admitted to be correct.这些资料已被公认为是正确的。

Terms of payment have now been agreed.付款条件现已得到认可。

6. 过去完成时:had been+过去分词

If my advice had been acted upon,the firm would not have gone bankrupt.如果我的建议被采纳,公司就不会破产了。

As soon as the details had been agreed upon, the results would be proclaimed.一旦细节问题取得一致意见,结果将予以公布。

He felt that he had been deliberately fooled by that man.他觉得那个人故意捉弄了他。

The witness affirmed to the fact the thief had been caught in the act.这位目击者证实那贼是在行窃时当场被捉的。

7. 将来完成时:shall/will+have been+过去分词

The new books will have been entered in the register before another parcel arrives.这些新书在下一批书到来前将登记完毕。

This class will have been taught by Mr Wu.

Brown for two years by next summer.到明年夏天,这个班将由布朗先生教两年了。

8. 过去将来完成时:should/would+have been+过去分词

He said that the bridge would have been completed before July.他说这座桥将于7月前建成。

The headmaster said the article would have been translated by six o'clock.校长说这篇文章将在6点钟以前翻译完毕。

Alone,he would have been terrified.如果是孤身一人,他会吓坏的。

9. 现在进行时:am/is/are being+过去分词

My bicycle is not available, it is being repaired.我的自行车现在不能用,因为正在修理。

The site is being developed.这块地正在被开发利用。

The gardens of the great house are being flung open to the public.这个大宅子的花园将宣布对公众开放。

Don't believe all these stories that are being put about.不要相信所有这些谣传。10过去进行时:was/were being+过去分词

She discovered that she was being closely watched.她发现被人监视。

He gave me a hint that I was being cheated.他暗示我在受人欺骗。

It seemed to be getting windy;the leaves were being blown about.好像起风了,树叶吹得到处都是。

I discovered that I had been excepted from the list of those who were being sent to Italy.我发现我并没有包括在派往意大利去的人的名单上。


1. “主+谓+宾”句型变为被动语态时,先将主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态中的主语(宾语如为人称代词,须将宾格变为主格);然后将主动语态中谓语动词的主动语态变为被动语态;最后在谓语动词的被动语态之后加by,再将主动语态中的主语置于介词by之后(如为人称代词,须将其主格变为宾格)。被动语态中的by短语,如无必要指出,则可省去。

She was abandoned by her boyfriend.她被她的男朋友抛弃了。

The papers have not been signed by the manager.这些文件还没有经经理签字。

He was brought up by an aunt.他是由婶婶抚育成人的。

A battery is usually commanded by a captain.一个炮兵连通常由一位上尉来指挥。

Facer was sacked five days ago.费塞5天前被解雇了。

That letter was posted last night.那封信是昨晚寄走的。

A new school will be opened in the village soon.一所新学校不久将在该村落成。

The old mansion was built in 1850.这座古宅建于1850年。

2. 如宾语是that从句,变为被动语态时可用it作被动句的形式主语或把主动句中宾语从句的主语变为被动句的主语,宾语从句中的谓语部分变为动词不定式短语。

It's accepted that the universe is endless.大家公认宇宙是无穷尽的。

It was reported in the newspaper that the workers were still on strike.据报纸报道,工人们仍在罢工。

It is said that there has been a big flood.据说,那里遭受了一场大洪水的袭击。

It is generally believed that seeing is believing.人们普遍相信眼见为实。

It may be safely affirmed that he is innocent.完全可以断言他是无罪的。

He is known to be an expert.他被认为是一位专家。

3. “主+谓+宾+宾”句型(一般地说一为间接宾语,一为直接宾语)变为被动语态时,只将主动语态中的一个宾语变为被动语态中的主语,另一宾语不变。如将主动语态中的直接宾语变为被动语态中的主语,间接宾语之前则应加介词to(可省去)或for(一般不可省)。

She was accorded a warm welcome.她受到了热烈的欢迎。

She was told a long story.她听了一个长故事。

We were set a noble example.有人给我们树立了崇高的榜样。

He was shown the new school building over.别人领着他参观了一遍新校舍。

Many privileges were accorded to them.他们得到了许多特权。

John's house was sold to a Frenchman.约翰的房子卖给了一个法国人。

The news was cabled to his family.这一讯息已电告其家属了。

A new method has been suggested to us.有人向我们提议采用新的方法。

A new coat was bought for me.有人给我买了件新上衣。

4. 含有指人的宾语与指物的宾语两个宾语的句子,变为被动语态时,一般将主动语态中指人的宾语变为主语,偶尔也可将主动语态中指物的宾语变成主语,但指人的保留宾语之前一般不可加任何介词。

The students were asked a very unusual question.学生被问了一个很不寻常的问题。

Your offence will be forgiven you.你的无礼将得到宽恕。

Many questions were asked the minister by journalists.记者问了那位部长许多问题。

5. “主+谓+复合宾语”句型(含一个宾语加宾语补足语)变为被动语态时,只将主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态中的主语,宾语补足语不变。

She has been accepted as a new member of the club.她已被接收为俱乐部的新会员。

The Chinese people are accounted industrious and brave.中华民族被认为是勤劳勇敢的民族。

Tom was chosen captain.汤姆被选为队长。

The teacher was asked to explain the difficult sentences again.老师被要求再解释一下这些难句。


1. 谓语是及物动词:


I'm leaving England and going to live in Australia.我即将离开英国去澳大利亚定居。

The train entered a tunnel.火车进入了隧道。

I reached Paris by plane on March 8.我于3月8日乘坐飞机到达巴黎。

That song doesn't suit her voice.那首歌不适合她的嗓子。

The reign of a wise ruler benefits his country.一位英明统治者的统治会对他的国家有益。

Some of the works lack artistic quality.有些作品艺术性不强。

2. 谓语是不可拆开的take place,consist of,lose heart,change colour,belong to等短语动词。

The threatening strike did not take place after all.可能来临的罢工终究没有发生。

A chair consists of a seat and a back.椅子是由椅座和椅背构成的。

Tiger and cat belong to the same family of beasts.虎与猫在兽类中属于同一科。

3. 宾语是无实意代词it。

As there's no cab,I have to foot it.因为没有出租车,所以我不得不步行。

4. 宾语是身体的某一部分的名词。

He shook his head at my suggestion.他对我的建议直摇头。

He shook her hand warmly.他热情地与她握手。

When her pet dog died my daughter cried her eyes out.我的女儿因她的爱犬死了而痛哭。

5. 宾语是某些抽象名词。

He lost interest in much of his research.他对大部分研究工作失去了兴趣。


1. “系动词+用作表语的过去分词”称为系表结构,它与被动语态的形式完全一样,但有以下几点不同:


The composition was written with great care.这篇作文写得很用心。(被动语态)

These articles are all sold out.这些货物全部出售了。(系表结构)

2. 被动语态可用by短语表动作的执行者;系表结构一般不用by短语。

The window was broken by the boy who lives next door.窗户是被住在隔壁的男孩打破的。(被动语态)

The question is settled.这个问题解决了。(系表结构)

3. 系表结构一般只用于一般现在时或一般过去时;被动语态则除可用于上述两种时态之外,还可用于其他时态。

The flowers will be planted next week.下周种花。(被动语态)

Museums are closed to the public on Mondays.博物馆每逢星期一闭馆。(系表结构)

4. 系表结构中的过去分词可被very修饰;被动语态中的过去分词可用much修饰。

He was very agitated.他很激动。(系表结构)

He was much agitated by the news.这消息使他很激动。(被动语态)

5. 被动语态只有被动意义;而系表结构在下列情况下可表主动意义:




She is resolved to become a ballet dancer.她决心当一名芭蕾舞演员。

I am quite puzzled.我十分困惑。

The open square was bathed in light.宽阔的广场沐浴在阳光中。

The way was lost between the trees.小路消失在树林之中。

She was scared out of her wits.她吓得不知所措。

Are you interested in this subject?你对这门课感兴趣吗?

6. 有些句子既可是被动语态,也可是系表结构,应根据上下文去理解。

The door was closed.门关上了。

The road was mended.路修好了。



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